Tuesday, 7 January 2020

124 - Kalra The Estate of Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana The Last Premier of Punjab

Tiwanas are a very old and an aristocratic family of district Shahpur (now Sargodha & Khushab). They are settled in many towns of Sargodha and Khushab on both sides of the river Jhelum. In the past, they held large jagirs at different places and played a very important role in the history of this part of Punjab. A history of this family is given in detail in the famous book "Chiefs & Families of note in the Punjab", first written by Sir Lepel H. Griffin and revised, perhaps for the last time in 1939, by G.L. Chopra. 

According to this book, Tiwanas settled in this region in the 15th century, at a place Jahangir near the Indus river, which I, however, could not locate. Later on, Mir Ali Khan moved his tribe eastward and founded a village Okhli Mohla. His son Mir Ahmad Khan around the year 1680, founded a new town Mitha Tiwana at a place where he found sweet water and made it the capital of his estate. The town flourished during the next generations. Hostilities with Awans and other neighbouring tribes continued constantly and gradually they increased the areas under their control. About the year 1745 Tiwana Chief Sher Khan founded the Nurpur Tiwana, probably present-day Nurpur Thal. Sher Khan died in 1767 and his son Khan Muhammad Khan became the chief of this tribe. During his rule, he suppressed rebellions at Botala, Hadali and Hamoka, which shows that by this time the Tiwanas were commanding a considerable area.  During all this period constant feuds with neighbouring tribes and states continued, including Khushab, Sahiwal, Mankera, Dera Ismail Khan and Jhang. Punjab during the 18th century, after the fall of the Mughal power in the province, was in total anarchy. The power of the Sikh confederacies was rising rapidly. Maharaja Ranjit Singh took full advantage of the situation and emerged as the most powerful ruler in Punjab. This is how he emerged on the scene and made his inroads:
Khan Muhammad was engaged in constant hostilities with his neighbours. Nurpur was attacked by the Nawab of Mankera, and only relieved after a siege of more than a month. With Lal Khan, the chief of Khushab, some fifteen miles from Mitha Tiwana, on the Jhelum, Khan Muhammad had always been friends, till Jafar Khan, the son and heir of Lal Khan, suspecting the Tiwana chief;s intentions were not quite honest, plotted against him while visiting Khushab. Khan Muhammad escaped to his own town and prepared for fight. Lal Khan, with his younger son, Hakim Khan, and his wife Nurbhari, came to assure Khan Muhammad of their innocence, but he arrested them and marching to Khushab, opened fire upon the town, tying his hapless prisoners to the guns to divert the fire of the enemy. Jafar Khan called Mahan Singh Sukarchakia, an old friend of Muhammad Khan, to his aid. The Sikh came with a considerable force and compelled the Tiwana chief to retire. Khan Muahammad, however, had his revenge, and killed in cold blood his wretched prisoners, who had never done nor wished him evil. Towards the end of his rule, his brother, Khan Beg Khan, again took up arms against him, being aided by Rajab Khan, a Sial Chief of Garh Maharaja, Fateh Khan of Sahiwal, and Jafar Khan of Khushab. For some time Muhammad Khan defended himself; but his enemies were too powerful, and in 1803 he applied to Ranjit Singh for succour. That Sardar was by no means secure himself; but on the promise of subsidy of one lakh of rupees he consented to trap Khan Beg Khan. It was arranged between the confederates that when Ranjit Singh marched into the country Khan Muhammad should take to flight, seeing which Khan Beg Khan would probably come to pay his respects, believing the Lahore chief his friend. All happened suspiciously; Khan Beg was  caught by Ranjit Singh and made over to his brother, by whom he was put to death. Ranjit Singh took his blood-money, and with small tribute from the Muslim maliks of the neighbourhood, returned to Lahore in 1804. Khan Muhammad Khan had outwitted his brother; but his second son,  Ahmad Yar Khan, now rebelled against him, and having won over most of the tribe to his side, induced his father to make a virtue of necessity and yield the chiefship to him. He had no easy life, and was always fighting with the chiefs of Mankera, Khushab and Sahiwal with varying success.
In 1871 Mahraja Ranjit Singh sent a force under Misar Diwan Chand against the Tiwana chief at Nurpur. After a short resistance the fort was taken and Ahmad Yar Khan fled to Jhandawala or Jandiala in the Mankera territory. When the Sikh army had retired, leaving a garrison under Jaswant Singh Mokal in Nurpur, Ahmad Yar Khan returned and regained possession of the country; but he was a second time compelled to fly to Jandiala from which he was driven by the Mankera Nawab, who threw his sons into prison. He now submitted to the Maharaja, who granted him the ilaqa of Jhawrian, worth Rs 10,000 in jagir, subject to the service of sixty horesemen. In 1821 Ranjit Singh marched against Hafiz Ahmad Khan, Nawab of Mankera, and the Tiwana Malik gladly joined the expedition, as he had an old score to wipe out with the Nawab. Muhammad Khan, the predecessor of Hafiz Ahmad, had surrounded Mankera with a cordon of twelve forts, Haiderabad, Maujgarh, Fatehpur, Pipal, Daria Khan, Khanpur, Jahandawala, Kalor, Dulerwala, Bhakar, Dingana, and Chaubara; while to make the central fortress inaccessible he had permitted no wells to be sunk within the cordon. But for all this, the besieging army, with the invincible Ranjit Singh commanding in person, moved on, digging wells, as it advanced, invested the fort, and after the siege of twenty-five days the Nawab capitulated, being allowed to retain the government of Dera Ismail Khan. 
The assistance rendered by the Tiwanas during this campaign was very great; and the Maharaja was so much struck with their handsome and manly appearance, their bold riding and gallant fighting, that he insisted upon a troop of Tiwana horse returning with him to Lahore. Of this troop of fifty horsemen Qadir Bakhsh was the commander. He served at Multan for some years, and in many campaigns, with distinction. 

Thus the Tiwana tribe got associated with the Lahore Darbar of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. For the next three decades, Tiwana sardars served the Khalsa government in different capacities like administering different areas and also helped them in their campaigns in areas across Indus, like Tank and Marwat areas. During the last years of the Khalsa Raj, Tiwana sardar Fateh Khan played his role in the infighting of the Sikh sardars and was involved in the murder of Peshawara Singh, a son of late Ranjit Singh, at Attock. The last few years of the Sikh rule were quite chaotic and after their defeat in early 1846 in the First Anglo Sikh war, the state had lost much of its freedom and was under the influence of the East India Company and anarchy was spreading in the far-flung areas of the state and different factions were busy in a cutthroat competition with each other to gain or increase influence at Lahore Darbar. The state had already lost Jalandhar Doab to East India Company and Jammu to Dogra sardars and the Kashmir valley was sold to Jammu sardars. Maharaja Duleep Singh the ruler was just an infant at the time. The disaffection against the ruling sardars and the British influence was rising and the situation soon got out of control. At the time, 1848, Fateh Khan was stationed at Bannu. The Sikh forces and their Muslim allies rose in rebellion against the Lahore government and Fateh Khan died while trying to suppress this rebellion. Soon the rebellion spread to other parts of Punjab and the British Raj intervened in force and after defeating the Sikh rebels forces at Multan, Ramnagar, Chillianwala and Gujrat, annexed Punjab on April 2, 1849. During these turbulent times, Tiwanas sided with the British. The transition of the family from Sikh to British rule is given as under in the above-mentioned book: 
On the annexation of the Punjab it was not easy to discover the real position of the family with regard to estates and allowances. At the death of Khudayar Khan in 1837 the estate was divided between his sons, Fateh Khan and his nephew, Qadir Bakhsh. The former commanded twenty-two sowars, and the later thirty-three; the allowance of Fateh Khan was Rs. 1,000, the same as his father had held as chabuk-sowar; that of Qadir Baksh was Rs 720; and, besides this, there were Rs 10,440 for the pay of the troopers. When Qadir Bakhsh died the jagir was continued to his son, Sher Muhammad Khan. In Jawahir Singh's time Fateh Khan was allowed one-quarter of the revenue collections of Mitha Tiwana and Khushab in consideration of the former position of his family in the district. This chaharam, or fourth, amounted to Rs 8,345 a year, but the Malik only held it one year. Under Lal Singh it was resumed, as were his other allowances, and his sowars were discharged. Fateh Khan seems also to have received from Raja Gulab Singh, the farm of the salt revenue, some percentage in the collections at Fatehpur, where in 1842 he had assisted to re-open and work a long disused mine. When sent by Jawahir Singh as governor of Dera Ismail Khan, his pay was fixed at Rs. 10,000; but this was nominal; and at so great a distance from Lahore a governor  could make his pay what he liked. Fateh Sher Khan, son of Fateh Khan, served as Major Edwardes' chief officers, and fought with the greatest gallantry throughout the war of 1848-49. At its close the Government was anxious adequately to reward the services of the Tiwanas and allowed them one-fourth of the revenues of the country from which they had been driven by Ranjit Singh. The whole mounted to Rs. 50,105, including Sher Muhammad jagir of Rs. 6,945, and this being resumed a jagir of Rs. 6,000, in perpetuity was granted to Sher Muhammad Khan, and one of the same amount to Fateh Khan and his four brothers; Fateh Sher Khan taking Rs. 2,000 and his brothers Rs. 1,000 each. In addition to these perpetual grants, Sher Muhammad Khan's personal jagir or Rs. 3,240 was continued to him as a pension for life, while Fateh Sher Khan received a cash pension of Rs. 5,000 and Sahib Khan of Rs. 480 a year. These Maliks and their relatives again proved loyal in the Mutiny. 
As we have noted above the Tiwanas sided with British during the second Anglo-Sikh war of 1848-49 and then again provided them valuable services during the war of 1857. Tiwanas chiefs, Malik Fateh Sher Khan and Malik Sher Muhammad Khan and Malik Sahib Khan raised irregular cavalries of hundreds of troops and participated in many battles during the war at different places including Punjab, Delhi and Oudh to suppress the rebellion. In return they were granted additional jagirs, pensions and titles. Now we shall follow the history of the Malik Sahib Khan in detail, the branch of the family to which Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana belonged. 
Malik Sahib Khan,  Khan Bahadur, C.S.I. (Companion of the Star of India), uncle of Malik Sher Muhammad Khan, did excellent service in 1848 on the occasion of the pursuit of Bhai Maharaj Singh and in the capture of his followers. He and Langar Khan of Sahiwal were the first to arrive at Jhang after a long chase, and were thus present in the attack upon the Bhai, in which Sahib Khan personally engaged and killed several of his adherents. The Malik then took his men down to Multan, and was present during the early portion of the siege. Thence, sent north on detachment duty, he attacked a body of the enemy near Chachran, defeated them with great slaughter, capturing four of their zamburas. In May, 1857, on the outbreak of the Mutiny, he raised a body of three hundred horse, with whom he was present at the affair at Jhelum against the mutineers of the 14th Infantry, and afterwards, under Mr. Cooper, against the mutineers of the 26th Regiment at Ajnala. Here Sahib Khan's advice and tact were most conspicuous in bringing about the capture of nearly two hundred mutineers without a single shot being fired, his party consisting of but forty dismounted sowars. Sahib Khan's contingent was then employed in preserving order around Cawnpore, where the people were still practically in rebellion. The duty of guarding the passage of the Jumna was successfully undertaken. At Kalpi, again, they were highly commended for their gallantry in covering the working parties engaged in erecting batteries. They then accompanied General Napier in his Central India campaign, and were on all occasions forward when fighting was anticipated. 
For his mutiny services Malik Sahib Khan was given the title of Khan Bahadur and a life jagir of Rs 1,200 in addition to his previous life pension of Rs. 480; and on his return to the Punjab he obtained a large grant of land, and excavated a canal from Jhelum for irrigation purposes, devoting himself with great success to its development. He took a great interest in horse-breeding, and, by his care and intelligence, did much to improve indigenous breeds. Best of all he kept himself aloof from the family quarrels in which his relatives had been only too apt to engage, and he earned a high reputation for straightforward, truthfulness and integrity. It was for this as well as for his gallant and loyal behaviour in the field, that the Companionship of the Star of India was conferred on him. He died in 1879, and his jagir and pension expired with him. 
His only son, Umar Hayat Khan, was educated at Aitchison College and in 1885 succeeded to the administration of his estate, which, during his minority, had been most profitably managed for him by the Court of Wards. As his father's Order of the Star of India had been resumed by Government, the then Deputy Commissioner told Malik Umar Hayat Khan that if he followed in the foot steps of his father, he might one day obtain the same distinction. This remark Malik took to the heart and vowed that he would so act in the future as to turn that remark into a prophecy. Indeed, he already had received a fine training at the college and also for the management of of his estate from the late Sir James Wilson. This proved very useful in cultivating good relationship with his tenantry, developing a philanthropic attitude of mind and in performing magisterial work with which he was entrusted by Government. He actively influenced the suppression of crime in his district, and the revival of many indigenous games and sports among his villagers. He established many free and charitable institutions, introduced registration of marriages among the Muslims of his district and started the practice of branding of cattle in his ilaqa. The Malik  also began to maintain a stud for the breeding of horses, which, in course of time, grew to be among the largest and the finest in the Punjab, which was highly appreciated by the Royal Horse Breeding Commission which inspected it. He was among the first in the Jhelum Canal Colony to accept the grant of land on horse breeding conditions. Out of his stud he supplied remount to the 18th Tiwana Lancers (now the 19th K.G.O. Lancers) in which he was given commission in 1901. For his keenness in horse breeding he was eventually elected President of the National Horse Breeding and Show Society of India. For this zeal in public service the Malik was taken on the Punjab Council in which he stoutly opposed the famous Colonisation Bill, which, although passed by the Council, was vetoed by the Viceroy and reference to the Malik's views in this connection was made in speech by the then Secretary of State. Similarly the Malik took an active part in the Punjab Alienation Act. He also took part in the various public organisations of the time and was actively associated with the Punjab Exhibition, the Punjab Chief's Association, the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam and many other similar institutions. He was among the six Muslim delegates to represent his community at the Diamond Jubilee of Her Late Majesty Queen Victoria. During the visit of the Amir of Afghanistan he acted as senior Attache and was presented with a watch and a revolver by him. Equally remarkable was his participation in almost all the deputations and commissions which functioned in the first quarter of the 20th century in India, e.g. the Horse Breeding Commission, the Irrigation Commission, the De-Centralisation Commission, the Irrigation Commission, the Public Service Commission, the Skeen Committee and the Reforms Committee, etc., etc. In 1920 he was appointed a member of Lord Esher's Army-in-India Committee.
Although Malik Umar Hayat Khan's work in civil sphere proved to be peculiarly noteworthy, the most congenial field of his activities, both by temperament and hereditary tradition, lay in the army. Beginning with the Tirah and Chitral campaigns in which he provided animal transport, recruits and remounts to the 18th Tiwana Lancers, which had been raised by his own father, he started on a career of military service which stands unique among his countrymen. He was gazetted as Lieutenant in 1904 and attached to the above mentioned Lancers. In 1903 he saw active service for the first time in the Somaliland campaign where he was sent, as an Assistant Commandant of the 54th Camel Corps. This Camel Corps which was largely raised by himself established a record for Indian camels by remaining without water for nine days. The Malik was next appointed as Aide-de-Camp Sir Charles Egerton, the General Officer Commanding the Expeditionary Force, and remained with him throughout the Nogal valley advance. He was present during the various engagements, including the battle of Jidbali. Later he was sent to join the staff of Colonel Brooke who was  in charge of the Indian Mounted Infantry. Still later, he accompanied Colonel Kena, V.C., A.C.S., who long afterwards was killed at Gallipoli. The Malik was awarded for this service, the East African General Service Medal and a clasp and was also mentioned in Despatches. On returning from the Somaliland campaign he set out with the Tiber Expedition in which he supervised the transport arrangements. He was stationed at Gyantse and put in charge of the running of mails between Lhasa and Gyantse during the peace negotiations. His experience as a magistrate was utilised by the military authorities who appointed him as a prosecutor in the trial of Court Martial cases up there. For the valuable services which he rendered in this region, he was presented to Lord Kitchener and was awarded the title of C.I.E. in 1906. Soon after this campaign the Malik directed his energies to the service of the people during the disastrous Kangra earthquake and won official admiration for his zeal. On the occasion of the Coronation Darbar of His Late Majesty King George V Malik Umar Hayat Khan was chosen as his Majesty's Indian Herald. This was a unique distinction conferred upon an Indian for the first time since the advent of the British Rule in this country. Again, he appeared at the head of the community at Jharokha Ceremony to pay homage to His Majesty. For his work as Herald he was awarded the M.V.O., among several other distinctions. In 1909 the Malik was appointed member of the Imperial Legislative Council and continued to work in that capacity until 1920 when he was elected to the Council of State. In the latter capacity he continued to work till 1929 when he was sent to England as a Member of the Secretary of State's Council. He worked on that Council until 1934. Thus he has had the rare distinction of having served for thirty years in the Indian Legislatures and the India Council, which is perhaps the largest period put in by any Indian. For this loyal work he was awarded the title of Nawab, at first as a personal and later as a hereditary distinction. 
Malik Umar Hayat Khan felt the call of the Great War in a special manner; for he was the first member of the Council to volunteer and proceed almost immediately to France with the very first batch of the Indian troops. He joined the staff of the Ferozepore Brigade which acted as a vanguard and was the first to enter the firing lines during the retreat of Mons in October, 1914. H performed very useful intelligence and propaganda work in Mesopotamia. He was several times mentioned in Despatches during this protracted campaign. For such invaluable and delicate duties in France and Mesopotamia the Malik was awarded the Knighthood of the Order of the Indian Empire, was promoted to the rank of Major, and was mentioned in Despatches. Later, he was invalided back to India. Here he worked as a recruiting officer with great vigour and perseverance. His own estate provided a large number of men. It is worthy of note in this connection that the Malik bore entirely his own expenses and that of his retinue throughout the period of the War. He was awarded the C.B.E., some remission of land revenue and a recruiting badge. 
It is not possible in a work like this to mention adequately the various kinds of services rendered by the Malik Sahib  to the administration. A mention may, however, be made of his assistance in the Punjab disturbances of 1919 and the Afghan War of the same year. The latter won him the rank of a Lieutenant Colonel. At the time of the Babar Akali menace also, he raised 150 sowars for the aid of the civil administration. A portion of this force was employed to drive away the notorious Salt Range dacoits who had committed several murders and depredations. While a Member of the India Council, the Nawab Sahib was promoted to full Colonelcy and appointed Aide-de-Camp to His Majesty the King. At the end of his term in 1934 he was exalted to the Knighthood of the Order of British Empire and invested with its insignia by His Late Majesty himself during the Jubilee celebrations of 1935. From among the whole of the British Indian population the Nawab Sahib was the only personage invited to attend those Jubilee celebrations, the other Aide-de-Camps being the Indian Ruling Chiefs. It was on this occasion that he was gazetted as Major General. 
During his stay in England  he was a member of Master of several lodges of Freemasonry and he rapidly rose to be the Post Grand Deacon of he United Grand Lodge of England, and is also founder of one of the Provincial lodges. His versatility is further shown by the fact that he is a keen sportsman, one of the best riders of his time and an expert in tent-pegging and pig-sticking. He is an authority on falconry and is President of the British Falconer Club. He is a most discriminating chess player. He is interested in the study of history and religion and recently made a pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina.
Major- Geneal Malik Nawab Sir Umar Hayat Khan Tiwana has only one son, Khizar Hayat Khan. He was born in 1900 and had a brilliant career at the Aitchison College where he stood first in the Diploma examination and secured all the four medals of the year. While yet at this college he had the honour of being invited to the Delhi Darbar, of which he possesses a medal. In 1916 he joined the Government College, Lahore, and while in the second year of his studies, he volunteered his services for the War. In 1918 he was granted commission in the army and attached to the 17th Cavalry (now the 15th Lancers). During the Punjab disturbances of 1919 his energetic work won him the appreciation of his officers and he was selected for special duty at the Government House, Lahore. He also served in the Afghan War of that year as Aide-de-Camp to General Benyon, General Officer Commanding of the Lahore Division. For his work in the relief of Thal he was mentioned in Despatches, besides being awarded the Afghanistan Medal. He then took up the management of the Kalra estate and proved a pioneering in introducing several modern methods of agriculture. For this he was presented to His Excellency the Viceroy at the Lyallpur Agricultural College Darbar. He began, long before the official birth of the Village Welfare Movement, some of the items of that movement into his village. He is as keen a horse breeder as his father and maintains a large private stud of his own. At the time of the Satyagrah movement of 1921 he assisted the administration in upholding law and order. After 1926 he worked as Honourary Recruiting officer in the Jhang and  Shahpur districts. He provided 175 mounted policemen against Babar Akalis. For a time he exercised first class magisterial powers and a rank of Extra Assistant Commissioner. His attitude was equally loyal and helpful to Government during the Congress movement of 1931, when he recruited 400 ex-servicemen for the additional police of his province. Both during the Non-co-operation and the Red-shirts movements he busied himself in visiting cantonments in the Northern Command Area to keep in touch with the Punjabi Muslims serving in the army. All this work he did at his own expense, and was thanked by His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief and awarded the O.B.E.(Military). It also earned him the N.W.F. 1930-31 Clasp. In the Indo-Japanese Trade Negotiations he was nominated by to represent the Punjab cotton growers.
Major Malik Khizar Hayat Khan has many other activities to his credit. He has been President and member of the National Horse Breeding and Show Society of India; Vice-Chairman and member of the Shahpur District Board; a member of the Selection Board of the Ministry of Education, Punjab; a member of the committee of selection of candidates for the Royal Indian Military College, Dehra Dun; the representative of the Punjab Government on the North-Western Railway Local Advisory Committee; and a very active member of the Committee and Council of Management of the Aitchison College, Lahore. On the occasion of the Jubilee celebration of His Majesty King George V  he was present in London and was awarded the Silver Jubilee Medal. His only son Nazar Hayat Khan, is studying at Aitchison College, Lahore. 
On the inauguration of provincial autonomy on 1st April, 1937, in accordance with the Government of India Act, 1935, Nawabzada Major Malik Khiza Hayat Khan became a Minister of the Punjab Government. He was put in charge of the Public Works Department. This position he continues to occupy until the present day. 
This book was last updated in 1939. We shall follow other sources to further this story. As noted above he served in the government of Sikandar Hayat Khan as a minister and worked to promote the interest of agricultural community, improve civil works in the province and harmony between communities. He also worked to reform the panchayat system. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he helped the government in recruiting troops for the war.

In 1942 he reached zenith of his political career. The premier of Punjab Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan (no relation) died in December 1942 and this post became vacant. At this point, India was passing through a very critical stage of its history, WWII raging in Europe and Asia and Japanese were planning to invade India. The All India Congress had launched Quit India Movement with full force and its elected provincial governments had already resigned. At this time just three elected governments were governing in the provinces of India, i.e, Bengal, Sindh and Punjab. Punjab was particularly important because of being the backbone of British India's war efforts and the breadbasket of India. Khizar Hayat was heading the government of the Unionist Party and party strictly secular in politics and representing all the three large communities of Punjab, Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs. The unionists were against the idea of partition of India on religious lines and believed in a united Punjab. But the tide of history was turning against these ideas and the public opinion under the Muslim League was fast accepting the idea of an independent state for Muslims. In addition to that political pressure, war conditions caused food shortages, high prices and government's support for conscription made it further unpopular.

in 1946 elections were held in which the Muslim League won 75 seats of 86 Muslim seats. But Khizar Hayat cobbled together a weak coalition of the Congress and Akali Dal. This weak coalition could not survive the agitation of the Muslim League and Khizar Hayat resigned on 2nd March, 1947, just six months before independence.

In the pictures below, you will see different parts of the residential complex of the Kalra estate spread over an area of almost 10 acres. The first pictures are those of the personal residence. In this section, we can see that it is complex of several buildings, with different designs and were probably not built at the same time. 

Residential buildings of the Kalra Estate. (11.07.2019)

The main gate of the inner compound. (11.07.2019)

Another view of the gate. (11.07.2019)

A view of the main gate from inside. (11.07.2019)

One of the doors in the residential area. (11.07.2019)

Remnants of the decorations of the ceiling. (11.07.2019)

Beautifully carved wooden decorations. (11.07.2019)

Traditional wooden arches.  (11.07.2019)

A view of the inner courtyard. (11.07.2019)

A building in the courtyard. (11.07.2019)

A beautiful room, with a very beautiful door and windows. (11.07.2019)

Another section of the residence. (11.07.2019)

Looking towards the entrance. (11.07.2019)

The most beautiful structure of the house. (11.07.2019)

The best-preserved section of the house. (11.07.2019)

A staircase leads to the rooms on the first floor. (11.07.2019)

A minaret in the courtyard of a mosque. (11.07.2019)

A view of the inner courtyard. (11.07.2019)

Rooms on the first floor. (11.07.2019)

Ibrahim Tariq and Azeem Sultan. (11.07.2019)

With my son Ibrahim Tariq. (11.07.2019)

A building in the residential complex. (11.07.2019)

A view from the first floor. (11.07.2019)

Passage to the first floor. (11.07.2019)

You can see ruined structures on the right, probably stables for horses. (11.07.2019)

A view of the Kalra village. (11.07.2019)

I wonder for whom this beautiful cradle was made. (11.07.2019)

An old water pump. (11.07.2019)

Constructed in England in 1935. (11.07.2019)

Inner passages. (11.07.2019)

Walls of the haveli from outside. (11.07.2019)

Another view of the huge boundary wall. (11.07.2019)

A huge wooden door. (11.07.2019)

Another section of the haveli in a bad shape. (11.07.2019)

The towering minaret of the mosque. (11.07.2019)

A large part of the complex is in ruins. (11.07.2019)

Looking at the main entrance from inside. (11.07.2019)

Most of the buildings are in a state of disrepair. (11.07.2019)

A view of the vast compound. (11.07.2019)

Probably ruins of the stable for horses. (11.07.2019)

The main mosque from outside(11.07.2019)

A drawing room or reception. (11.07.2019)

Another view of the building. (11.07.2019)

A guest house. (11.07.2019)

Another view of the guest house. (11.07.2019)

Just outside the village and about 300 metres from the living quarters, the family has its own cemetery. The most important person buried here is Nawab Umar Hayat Tiwana. He died in 1944 and his grave constructed on a raised platform with a canopy above. 

Grave of Malik Umar Hayat Khan Tiwana. (11.07.2019)

جنرل نواب ملک سر عمر حیات خان ٹوانہ
جی-بی-ای،   کے-سی-آئی-ای،  ایم، وی، او
اے-ڈی-سی  (ملک معظم برطانیہ شہانشاہ ہند)
ولادت - 21 اکتوبر 1874
وفات - 24 مارچ 1944

General Nawab Malik Sir Umar Hayat Khan Tiwana
G.B.E. (Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire)
 K.C.I.E. (Knight Commander of the India Empire)
 M.V.O. (Member of the Royal Victorian Order)
ADC (His Majesty the King of Britain and the Emperor of India)

Tombstone. (11.07.2019)

G.B.E.,  K.C.I.E.,  M.V.O.,  A.D.C. TO HIS

Grave of Umar Hayat Khan Tiwana. (11.07.2019)

The sarcophagus of the grave is built on two raised platforms. (11.07.2019)

Grave of Malik Khizar Hayat Khan, and the next two graves are of his two wives and in the background is the tomb of his mother. (11.07.2019)

A view of the cemetery. (11.07.2019)

A sitting hall in the cemetery. (11.07.2019)

The inside view of the hall. (11.07.2019)

Tomb of Khizar Hayat's mother. (11.07.2019)

Another view of the grave of Malik Khizar Hayat. (11.07.2019)

A mosque in the cemetery. (11.07.2019)

Malik Khizar Hayat died in 1975 in California but was buried in his estate at Kalra. But he was born near Shahpur Sadr at Chak Muzaffarabad, 15 kms from Kalra. That two perhaps was a part of these large estates and jagirs. If I am not wrong they also had considerable land in Megha Kadhi, about ten kilometers north of Kalra. I went their a few days later. The main house building is inside a walled compound and we could not enter it. However, I took pictures of a two buildings, which are used for the guests. 

Entrance to the Chak Muzaffarabad. (17.07.2019.)

A building probably used as a drawing room(17.07.2019.)

A guest house. (17.07.2019.)

A citrus garden at Chak Muzaffarabad. (17.07.2019.)

A big house is located inside the compound. (17.07.2019.)

After the creation of Pakistan, Malik Khizar Hayat Khan did not remain active in politics. Perhaps for the first time in two centuries, Tiwanas did not understand which direction the winds were blowing and did not support the idea of Pakistan. Perhaps he did not want to compromise on his principles, unlike many others who jumped into the bandwagon of the Muslim League, literally at the last moment. Anyway, we are not a nation to tolerate differences of opinion, especially when it comes to "patriotism" or "national interest". After independence, he lost most of his lands due to land reforms and perhaps also because of being not in the good books of the establishment. That's why now the resources of the family are perhaps not enough to maintain such a big estate at Kalra and most of the buildings are decaying. 

It was my second visit to Kalra. I visited this place in 2009 as well. So this was my second visit. But I feel that I shall perhaps again for the third time one day. 

As you can see in the above pictures, the condition of the guest house was considerably better, ten years ago. (21.02.2009)

A portrait of Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana. 

A group picture, with Quaid-i-Azam, in the centre. 

The entrance of the Cemetery. (21.02.2009)

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Malik Umar Hayat Khan Tiwana.

Master Tara Singh, Malik Khizar Hayat and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana, with his friends. 

Malik Khiazar Hayat Khan Tiwana. 

I could not find much about his later life, except that he died at Butte City, a small village in California in 1975. He had four sons, who probably all have died. However, one daughter Shahzadi Umerzadi Tiwana is still active in politics and was an MNA till 2018. She lives in Lahore and comes to visit Kalra occasionally. What kind of a person he was? The bit of information I came to know, according to that he was a soft-spoken person and like his talented father, took great care of the people of his estate. They both were famous for their justice and charity and always remained impartial among all religious communities. They especially take good care of widows and orphans. It is not a small point that, despite being very big landlords, people still remember them in good words. However, I invite my readers to share any more information they may have about this family. 

Tariq Amir

January 7, 2020.
Doha - Qatar.