Saturday 19 August 2023

171. Shah Allah Ditta Caves & a Baoli - Islamabad!

Islamabad the capital city of Pakistan is a new city, but this area has a long history going back thousands of years to ancient times. The earliest civilization of this region was known as the Gandhara civilization. Its main city Taxila is located not far away from the city. Now almost the outskirts of this rapidly expanding city. Taxila is famous for its great stupas, monasteries, and many other archaeological sites. I covered most of these sites in my previous posts. One of the sites associated with Buddhist religious and cultural sites is Shah Allah Ditta caves. This site is located within the boundaries of the Islamabad Capital Territory and close to the modern residential areas of D13. The caves are situated at  33°43'18.09"N,  72°54'54.45"E

According to some general information available on different sites, the site was originally used by Buddhist monks for many centuries, starting around 400 BC. That is quite possible as the area lies in the heart of Gandhara civilization and the nearest stupa is located only 2 kms to the west on top of the hills. A trail leads to the stupa, but I did not visit the place. So cannot confirm the condition of the trail. However, the ascend is nearly 200 meters, which is considerable. 

The caves of Shah Allah Ditta. (31.07.2022.)

The caves are set in a very beautiful place, covered with verdant trees and foliage. The scene captivates your senses and soothes your nerves. The whole setting is very serene and peaceful. Lush green hills surround the place as if protecting it from the tumults of the outside world. 

A gorge in the west of the caves. The Ban Faqiran Stupa is located in the same direction. 

After the influence of Buddhism faded in the region, Hinduism became popular. This place too came under the use of Hindu Sadhus and reportedly they lived here up to 1947. The garden at the caves is still known as Sadhu Ka Bagh i.e. Garden of the Sadhu. 

A pond filled with spring water. 

Iftikhar and Obaid are closely inspecting the waterworks at Shah Allah Ditta. (31.07.2022.)

Ruins of old dwellings of sadhus and monks. 

The caves. (31.07.2022.)

Another cave. (31.07.2022.)

A spring flows out of the hills and irrigates the adjoining fields. (31.07.2022.)

Sadhu Ka Bagh.  (31.07.2022.)

On the way to Shah Allah Ditta.  

Obaid ur Rehman. (31.07.2022.)

Tariq Amir, the writer. (31.07.2022.)

Passing through D-12, on the way to Shah Allah Ditta. (31.07.2022.)

The caves are not the only attraction in the area. Up in the hills, at a distance of about 3.5 kms, is another historic structure. It is a baoli; stepwell. Again no authentic information is available, like when and by whom it was constructed. The road to the baoli, is very scenic and you can have a wonderful view of Islamabad City below. Needless to say that the surroundings are very beautiful. Some resorts are available and can provide a place for rest and dining. The Baoli is located at  33°43'48.05"N,  72°55'35.59"E.

Obaid taking shelter under a tree in warm and humid weather. (31.07.2022.)

It is a small Baoli, actually the smallest one I have ever seen. Its location suggests that once it was a busy trail used by people to cross the Margalla Hills. It is made of carved stones and still supplies water to the local people. It is in good condition and brimming with water, which suggests that people pay good attention to its maintenance. 

A view of Islamabad. (31.07.2022.)

From the left: Tariq, Obaid and Iftikhar. (31.07.2022.)

It is a very nice picnic spot for a day out to relax and enjoy in serene atmosphere, amidst lush green Margalla Hills. Hikers can also enjoy the walking tracks in the area. Some restaurants and resorts are open to serve the visitors. You can enjoy your dinner, in this peaceful atmosphere, while enjoying the beautiful scenery all around. 

Tariq Amir
August 19, 2023.

Tuesday 8 August 2023

170. Monuments of the Gandhara Civilization at Taxila - 08 (Bhamala Stupa)

The world-famous Gandhara civilization has many monuments, like stupas, and monasteries around Taxila. You can see the details on Taxila Museum, Dharmarajika, Mohra Moradu, Pipplan, Jaulian, Jinnan Wali Dheri, Jandial Temple, and Giri Fort, in my previous posts on this blog. So, I shall not repeat the information about the Gandhara civilization, its historical significance and architectural beauty. 

All the above-mentioned places are near Taxila or on the road to Khanpur Dam, hence, easily accessible. However, one of them Bhamal Stupa, the topic of this post, is a bit difficult to reach. This stupa is located on the other side of the Khanpur Lake i.e. the northern side. This site is located at  33°49'58.40"N,  72°58'34.71"E on a small hill, on the banks of River Haro. It is difficult to reach as the path leading to the site is unpaved and is just a stony track, with many twists and bends. Such is the condition for the last five kilometers. 

Stupa at Bhamala. (01.10.2022.)

It was the first of October 2022, a very pleasant day. The rainy season had just ended and the weather was simply excellent, with no dust and haze and a cool breeze blowing. The scene all along the way was breathtaking. The road winds along the Haro River at the edge of hills covered with green foliage. The clean blue water of Haro flowing through the lush green hills was creating a scene that one cannot forget.


Bhamala is one of the most important Buddhist Archaeological Site in this region. This site was declared as a World Heritage Site in 1980 along with other monuments in Taxila Valley. Sir John Marshall excavated this cruciform type of Stupa in 1930-31. Scientific Archaeological excavations at Bhamala were resumed after almost 80 years in 2012-13 by the Department of Archaeology, Hazara University Mansehra under the supervision of Dr Abdul Samad (Assistant Professor at that time) in collaboration with the University of Wisconsin (Madison) USA.

Keeping in view the archaeological potential of the site, The Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa carried out further field excavations and investigations at Bhamala from 2014 to 2016 under the supervision of Dr Abdul Samad (Director, Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Govt. of KP).

The excavations have brought to light a large number of archaeological artifacts (terracotta and stucco sculptures, coins, iron, copper objects) as well as structural remains including the second main Stupa surrounded by a subsidiary Stupa and chapels adorned with stucco sculptures.

The most remarkable discovery made during these excavations was a 14-meter-long re(c)lining Buddha made of dressed blocks of Kanjur stone.

This colossal Buddha image is placed on a stone platform inside a long chamber. Like other monumental images of reclining Buddha reported from Afghanistan and Tajikistan, the Bhamala Buddha is also facing towards the main Stupa. A large number of terracotta images are reported from inside the Parinirvana chamber showing that worshippers and mourners.

Radiocarbon date of the charred wood and charcoals taken from inside the terracotta sculpture placed around the monumental Parinirvana has confirmed that the Parinirvana was made during the 3rd century AD. Thus, the monumental Buddha image from Bhamala is the earliest representation of Parinirvana Buddha predating all the known colossal Parinirvana images reported from the surrounding regions including Ajanta (India) Tappa Sardar and Bamiyan (Afghanistan) Adzihna Tepe (Tajikistan), Daunghaung (China) and Chui Valley (Kirghizstan). It is also the sole example of Parinirvana Buddha in Kanjur stone.

The Archaeological Site at Bhamala is protected under  the provision of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Antiquities Act 2016 and as per section 18 Sub-Section (2) of the said act whoever, destroy, break, damage, alter, imitate, deface or mutilate or scribble, write or engage any inscription or sign on, any antiquity or take manure from any protected antiquity shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term, which may extend to five years, or with fine up to rupees two million, or with both.  


بھمالا اس خطے کا سب سے اہم آثار قدیمہ ہے، اس سائٹ کو 1980 میں ٹیکسلا کی دوسری سائٹوں کی طرح بین الاقوامی ہیرٹیج سائٹ کا درجہ دیا گیا۔ 1930-31 میں سر جان مارشل نے اس سائٹ کی کھدائی میں ایک صلیب نما سٹوپا دریافت کیا، 80 سال بعد اس سائٹ پر ہزارہ یونیورسٹی نے یونیورسٹی آف وسنکانسن، میڈی سن (یو ایس اے) کے تعاون سے ماہر آثار قدیمہ اس وقت کے اسسٹنٹ پروفیسر ڈاکٹر عبدالصمد کی زیر نگرانی اس سائٹ پر جدید طریقے سے دوبارہ کھدائی شروع کی، اس سائٹ کی اہمیت کے باعث محکمہ آثار قدیمہ اور عجائبات، حکومت خیبر پختونخوا نے 2014 سے 2016 تک محکمہ ہذا کے ڈائریکٹر ڈاکٹر عبدالصمد کے زیر نگرانی ایک بار پھر سے تحقیق اور کھدائی کا سلسلہ شروع کیا، اس کھدائی کی روشنی میں بڑی تعداد میں قدیمی نوادرات، مٹی اور چونے کے مجسمے، قیمتی سکے، لوہے اور تانبے سے بنی اشیاء دریافت ہوئیں۔ اس کے ساتھ ساتھ قدیم دیواروں کے باقیات جن میں دوسرا مرکزی سٹوپا شامل ہے جس کے چاروں طرف ذیلی اسٹوپا بھی برآمد ہوا، ان کھدائیوں کے دوران سب سے قابل ذکر دریافت کنجور پتھر سے بنا 14 فٹ لمبا سٹوپا ہے۔ اس شاندار بدھا کی شبیہ ایک لمبے چیمبر کے اندر پتھر کے اندر ایک پلیٹ فارم پر رکھا گیا۔ افغانستان اور تاجکستان سے ملنے والے بدھا کے ساتھ ملنے والی دوسری یادگار مجسموں کی طرح، بھامالا بدھا کا بھی مرکزی اسٹوپا کی طرف رخ ہے۔ پرینیروانا چیمبر کے اندر سے بڑی تعداد میں مٹی کےمجمسے بنائے گئے ہیں۔ جن میں راہب اور ان کے پیروکار بنائےگئے ہیں۔ یادگار پریزوان شبیہہ کے آس پاس رکھے گئے مٹی کے مجسمہ کے اندرسے لی گئی چارڑی ہوئی لکڑی اور چارکول کی ریڈیو کاربن ڈیٹنگ نے اس بات کی تصدیق کی ہے کہ پرینیر وانا تیسری صدی کے دوران بنایا گیا تھا۔ اس طرح بھمالا کی یادگار پرینیروانا بدھا کی ابتدائی نمائندگی ہے۔  جس کی ارد گرد کے علاقوں سے آجنتا (ہندوستان) ٹپا سرداراور بامیان (افغانستان)، اڈیز ہناٹٰیپے (تاجکستان)، ڈونگہونگ (چین) اور وادی چوئی (کرغیزستان) اور ارد گرد علاقوں سے موصولہ یہ کنجور پتھر میں پرینیر وانا بدھا کی واحد مثال ہے۔ بھمالہ کے آثار قدیمہ کا تحفظ خیبر پختونخوا نوادرات ایکٹ 2016 کے تحت محفوظ ہےاور مذکورہ ایکٹ کے سیکشن 18 سب سیکشن (2) کے مطابق جو بھی تباہ، توڑ، نقصان، بدلاؤ، زخمی، خرابی یا مسخ شدہ یا لکھائی یا دستخط کرنا، کوئی نوادرات یا کسی محفوظ شدہ نوادرات سے کھاد لینے پر ایک مدت کے لیئے سخت قید کی سزا ہوسکتی ہے، جس کی مدت پانچ سال تک ہوسکتی ہے، یا بیس لاکھ روپے تک جرمانہ ہوسکتا ہے، یو دونوں ہوسکتے ہیں۔   

After a considerable time, we finally covered the arduous route and reached the stupa. The stupa and the adjoining monastery are located on a flat hill, covering an area of a little over 2 acres. The site is protected by a fence and the entrance was also closed. We became a little bit anxious but soon found a guard on duty. But he had no good news for us. He informed us that the site was going under some repair and restoration work and was closed to visitors. But we were not ready to give up easily, especially after coming so far on such a tortuous road. On our repeated requests the guard agreed to call his superior and luckily got permission to allow us in. 

The mountains around Bhamala. (01.10.2023.)

Monastery in the east of the main Stupa. (01.10.2023.)

It is a typical Buddhist site with one huge stupa, surrounded by the figures of Buddha. And on the east of the stupa is located a monastery for the living and learning of monks. Very similar to the other sites around Taxila. It is a very beautiful place, with lush green hills around and a river flowing nearby. I felt that the monks could not have chosen a better place to worship God. Indeed a place where one feels himself close to his Creator. 

The interior of the Stupa. (01.10.2023.)

The monastery at Bhamala. (01.10.2023.)

Iftikhar Ahmad Bhatti. (01.10.2023.)

Tariq Amir. (01.10.2023.)

The Haro RIver. (01.10.2023.)

A statue of Buddha. (01.10.2023.)

On the way to Bhamala. (01.10.2023.)

The Khanpur Dam Lake. (01.10.2023.)

The road to this historical site is not good, but I assure you that visiting this place is worth all the trouble it takes to reach there. The beauty of this area will captivate you. There is an additional attraction, as on the way to Bhamal you can visit and take a break on the Khanpur Dam.  A beautiful picnic spot that offers a lot of activities to visitors including boating, skiing, and gliding. Many resorts are located around the lake to facilitate visitors.

Tariq Amir
August 8, 2023.

Monday 31 July 2023

169. Timur Shah & Zaman Shah's Invasions of Punjab (1774 - 1799)

Ahmad Shah Abdali, the founder of the modern Afghan state, died in 1772. During his reign of 25 years, he invaded Punjab and North India 10 times. He annexed Punjab up to Sirhind and conquered Kashmir. Sindh also acknowledged his suzerainty and paid tribute. However, his control over Punjab was precarious and he could not subdue the Sikhs. You can see the details in my previous post:

168. Ahmad Shah Abdali's Ten Invasions of Punjab / North India!

Abdali was succeeded by his son Timur Shah. He was born in Mashhad in 1746. He had accompanied his father in some of his campaigns. In 1757 he was appointed the viceroy of Punjab at the age of eleven years, with Jahan Khan serving as his deputy. However, he was evicted from Lahore by the combined forces of Adina Beg and Marathas the next year. He was the governor of Herat when Abdali died. However, before his death, he nominated Timur Shah as his successor. Even so, his accession was not without some trouble. It is significant to note that he shifted the capital to Kabul from Kandahar. 

Timur Shah was a man of peaceful disposition, but could not remain aloof from the politics of Punjab. The Sikh influence and power were rising day by day and Afghans were determined to wrest the control of Punjab back from the Sikhs.

Tomb of Timur Shah Durrani, Kabul. (Photo: Wikipedia)

1. The First Invasion (1774 - 1775)

Faizullah Khan Khalil, chief of the Mohmand tribe, invited Timur Shah to invade Punjab and assured him of full support. Timur started his march from Kabul in November 1774 and reached Peshawar. He crossed Attock in January 1775 and defeated Milkha Singh, the Sikh Sardar of Rawalpindi. The Sikhs retired to the Chenab. However, Timur Shah due to his inadequate army and the audacity of the Sikhs, decided not to march any further and retired to Peshawar. 

Bala Hisar Fort, Peshawar. (Photo: Wikipedia)

2. The Second Invasion (1779 - 1780)

Timur Shah left Kabul in October 1779 and halted at Peshawar. His target for this expedition was the conquest of Multan, which was in the hands of the Sikhs. His advanced army under Zangi Khan defeated an army of Sikhs at Rohtas. Timur himself marched towards Multan and laid siege to the city in January 1780. A large army of the Sikh confederacy came from Lahore to relieve the Sikh garrison at Multan. Timur Shah intercepted this relieving force at Shujaabad and defeated it decisively on 8th February 1780. The Sikhs retreated to Lahore.

The city fell to the Afghans in a few days. Timur ordered a general massacre in the city and the people suffered terribly. The Sikh garrison took shelter in the citadel. That too was surrendered on 18th February 1780 and the Sikhs were allowed to leave under the terms of capitulation. After staying for two weeks at Multan Timur retired to Afghanistan. 

Shahi Eid Gah, Multan. (Photo: Wikipedia)

3. The Third Invasion (1780 - 1781)

The third campaign of Timur Shah was primarily aimed at Bahawalpur. He reached Multan in late 1781. Nawab Muhammad Bahawal Khan who was tributary to Ahmad Shah had stopped paying tribute to Timur. On the approach of the Afghan army, the Nawab retired to a fort deep in the desert, along with his family, treasure, and army. Bahawalpur city was plundered by the Afghans. However, the Nawab could not withstand the determination of Timur to subdue him and sued for peace and agreed to pay the tribute, including the arrears. At the conclusion of this campaign, Timur returned to Peshawar on his way to Kabul.

Noor Mahal, Bahawalpur. (Photo: Wikipedia)

4. The Fourth Invasion (1785)

Timur Shah reached Peshawar in December 1785. He wanted to subdue the Sikhs in Punjab with the help of Shah Alam II, the Mughal Emperor, and other local chiefs. But could not forge an alliance. He recovered Kashmir from its rebellious governor and returned to Kabul in May 1786, to face troubles on his northern borders.

Jama Masjid, Srinagar. (Photo: Wikipedia)

5. The Fifth Invasion (1788)

The fifth invasion started in late 1788 and the Afghans crossed the Indus at Attock in November 1788. This campaign was launched to settle the matters at Delhi Darbar and to support Jodhpur state in her conflict with Marathas. But he could not go beyond Bahawalpur, which was once again sacked, and the Nawab was forced to pay his arrears in tribute. Sind was also forced to pay six million rupees in tribute. This proved to be his last campaign in India, though there were many false alarms in the future. 

River Indus at Attock. (Photo by the writer. 15.12.2021.)

In early 1793 Timur Shah was contemplating his next campaign when he was taken ill at Peshawar and retired to Kabul, where he died on the 18th of May 1793. He was succeeded by his son Shah Zaman. 

6. The Sixth Invasion (1796 - 1799)

After consolidating his power in Afghanistan, Shah Zaman started his campaign in 1796 and captured Lahore in January 1797, without resistance, as the Sikh abandoned the city and retired to Amritsar. Shah Zaman tried to march on Amritsar but failed. Due to internal problems in Afghanistan, he soon returned. His appointed governor was killed by the Sikhs and the city was lost to them again.

7. The Seventh Invasion (1798 - 1799)

Shah Zaman again captured Lahore in the autumn of 1798, but due to the fierce resistance and being unable to overcome the guerrilla tactics of the Sikhs, he again retired to Afghanistan. Thus, this campaign too proved to be a failure and he could not march to Delhi, as he originally intended. 

This was the last campaign of Shah Zaman, and indeed the last one from an Afghan ruler or anyone else from the North West. Now the tide turned decisively in favour of the Sikhs and actually, they expanded westward for the next half a century. Shah Zaman himself lost his throne in 1801 and escaped to Punjab. He lived in exile for the rest of his life in Ludhiana and died in 1844. 

I took most of the information from the book of Hari Ram Gupta, Later Mughal History of Panjab, and also took some help from Wikipedia.

Tariq Amir
July 31, 2023.

Monday 17 July 2023

168. Ahmad Shah Abdali's Ten Invasions of Punjab / North India!

Ahmad Shah Abdali was a famous king of Afghanistan in the 18th century. He is considered the founder of modern Afghanistan and for Afghans, he is a national hero. Even in Pakistani mythology, he stands on a high pedestal. Though I am not sure why. After all, we the inhabitants of this region were at the receiving end of his adventures. We even have named a missile after this famous warrior perhaps to instill fear in Indians. 

History is interesting to read, but challenging to explain or interpret. Therefore, I shall not focus on the merits or demerits, or achievements of Abdali, as it is a very complex subject, that depends on the perspective from which it is viewed. 

Abdali was an Afghan who rose to prominence in the service of Nadir Shah of Iran and accompanied him during his sack of Delhi in 1739. Upon the assassination of Nadir Shah, he looted a portion of his enormous treasure and fled along with his Afghan followers to Kandahar, where he established himself as an independent ruler. The riches he acquired from Nadir Shah's treasure included the famous Koh-i-Noor diamond. 

After becoming king, he embarked upon a campaign of consolidation, conquest and plunder. He is most famous for his victory in the third battle of Panipat in 1761. But that was not the only time he invaded India. Mr Hari Ram Gupta in his book "Later Mughal History of the Panjab", mentions ten invasions of Punjab and Northern India, and I would like to share this information with my readers. 

The motives behind these invasions are understandable. To consolidate his grip over power, Abdali needed money and prestige, and what better place there could be to achieve these goals than India. It was also important to keep the troublesome chieftains and tribes busy in the business they liked the most. Otherwise, they would fall upon each other or rebel against the king. 

Ahmad Shah Abdali. (Picture:

1. The First Invasion (1747-48)

The Mughals had already lost control over Kabul and Peshawar after the invasion of Nadir Shah in 1739. In 1747 Abdali launched his first invasion of Punjab on the invitation of the governor of Lahore Shahnawaz Khan, who was not on good terms with Delhi. Abdali marched from Peshawar in December 1747 and reached Shalamar Garden on 10th January 1748. In the meantime, Shahnawaz Khan changed his mind and refused to cooperate with Abdali. The matters were sorted out the next day on the battlefield. Shahnawaz was defeated and fled to Delhi. Abdali captured the city without any further resistance and plundered the suburbs of the city, particularly Mughalpura. The city itself was spared upon payment of 3 million rupees. 

Aging, indolent and feeble Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah finally rose from his stupor and sent a huge army northward to confront Abdali. After some manoeuvering the two armies met at Manupur, about 16 km northwest of Sirhind, on 11th  March 1748. The result was in favour of the Mughals and Abdali had to retreat. However, the Mughals did not take full advantage of this victory and did not pursue him. Thus Abdali's first adventure ended in failure. 

Aam Khas Bagh Sirhind. Photo by Wikipedia

2. The Second Invasion (1749-50)

Abdali was keen to retrieve his honour and crossed the Indus in December 1749. He knew the chaotic conditions in the Mughal darbar and was determined to take full advantage. Muin ul Mulk was the governor of Lahore at that time and he marched to meet the invader. He encamped at Sodhra, 5km east of Wazirabad. While Abdali was staying at Kopra, 7 km further eastward. Negotiations started between the two camps. Abdali demanded the revenues of four Mahals, Gujrat, Aurangabad, Pasrur and Sialkot. The emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur thought it prudent to accept the demands of Abdali, instead of fighting. Abdali, thus satisfied, returned to Afghanistan. 

Shivala Temple, Sialkot. (24.07.2019.)  Photo by the Writer

3. The Third Invasion (1751-52)

The weakness shown by Ahmad Shah Bahadur was an open invitation for further aggression. Excuse for this invasion was readily found when the revenue, of the aforementioned four Mahals, was not paid in time. He sent his emissary to demand the revenue due to him. The governor, Muin ul Mulk, expressed his inability to pay the full amount but sent him Rs 9 lalkhs and promised to pay the rest. However, Abdali was not satisfied and continued his march on Lahore. He laid siege to the city and after a prolonged struggle, lasting for several months, Muin ul Mulk, or Mir Mannu, as he is famous in history, surrendered to Abdali on 6th March. He had no other option as he did not receive any help or reinforcements from Ahmad Shah Bahadur the Mughal emperor in Delhi. Though he fought valiantly and Abdali was impressed by his bravery. In the end, a treaty was concluded between the two monarchs and Punjab, including Multan, was ceded to Abdali's empire and Abdali appointed Muin ul Mulk as his own governor at Lahore.

It was a hard, bitter campaign. The city was plundered and large areas around the city were devastated. During the siege of Lahore, an army of Abdali easily conquered Kashmir and this beautiful valley was permanently lost by the Mughals. 

Lahore Fort. Photo by Wikipedia

4. The Fourth Invasion (1756-57)

The governor of Lahore Moin ul Mulk died in 1753 and his wife Mughlani Begum took control of the government of Punjab. However, she herself was deposed and made captive in 1756 by the Wazir Imad ul Mulk, who appointed Adina Beg as the new governor. To settle the score with her opponents, she invited Abdali to invade India, promising to secure him crores of rupees from Delhi. This was an opportunity that Abdali could hardly miss. 

Abdali marched from Kandahar and reached Lahore on 20th December 1756. At this point, the Mughal Empire had been reduced to the lowest depth of wretchedness and Abdali entered Delhi on 28th January, 1757, without any resistance. 

What happened next is narrated in Siyar Al Mutakhreen, by Ghulam Hussain Khan Tabatabai:

"From that day his troops commenced plundering and sacking the city mercilessly, and they kept on dragging away people's wives and daughters so cruelly that a large number of them overborne by the delicacy of their feelings preferred to commit suicide and God only knows the number and nature of all other violence committed in that unfortunate city."

Abdali employed all kinds of threats, torture and devious means to extort money from the highest officials of Delhi Darbar or the rich traders of the city. From Delhi, Abdali marched southward and captured the fort of Ballabgarh. From this city expeditions were sent in all directions to loot, plunder, indiscriminate killings and rape women. Holy cities of Hindus, Mathura and Brindaban were devasted and plundered by Jahan Khan, the commander in chief of Abdali. The same treatment was meted out to Agra, where two thousand people were massacred. 

These depredations only stopped when cholera broke out in Abdali's camp and hundreds of soldiers started dying daily, he was forced to return to Delhi. On his return, Delhi was again looted. Earlier Abdali had married his son Timur Shah to the daughter of Emperor Alamgir II. Now he himself forcibly married Hazrat Begum, a 16 years old daughter of the late Emperor Muhammad Shah. Soon Abdali returned to Afghanistan with his enormous booty loaded on 28,000 camels, horses, mules, bullock carts and elephants. 

He appointed his eleven years old son Timur Shah the governor of Lahore, under the supervision of his general Jahan Khan and also annexed the province of Sirhind. However, by this time it was not easy to rule Punjab. Sikhs were in rebellion and taking full advantage of the chaotic conditions in Punjab and other centres of power like Adina Beg, the governor of Jalandhar Doab, were also in no mood to cooperate with the Afghans. As a result, the Afghan control over Punjab was weak and precarious. 

Red Fort, Delhi. Photo by Wikipedia

5. The Fifth Invasion (1759-61)

The fifth invasion of Abdali proved to be the most famous. The Afghans, as we have noted above, were unable to govern Punjab effectively. Adina Beg to further his interests invited Marathas, who were in control of Delhi, to invade and occupy Punjab. On the approach of Marathas Jahan Khan fled from Lahore on 9th April 1758 and Marathas chased him up to Attock. They remained in occupation of that strategic point for four months.  

Earlier in August 1757, Delhi was also lost to Marathas and Najib ud Daula, the de facto ruler of Delhi and a close ally of Abdali had to flee the city. Now the emperor Almagir II was the puppet of Marathas. At this point, both Najib and Alamgir appealed to Abdali to help them against the Marathas. Abdali could not ignore the rising tide of Marathas and decided to come to the rescue of his allies in India and wrest control of Punjab from the Marathas.

He reached Lahore in October 1759. The next year passed in a lengthy campaign and several battles in the vast plains of North India and finally Abdali and his allies and Marathas met in the historic battlefield of Panipat on the 13th of January 1761. The Marathas suffered a crushing defeat and lost their supremacy in North India for many years. On the other side, this was the greatest victory of Abdali in his entire military career. He stayed with his army in Delhi for the next two months and returned to Afghanistan on 22nd March 1761.

The War Memrorial at Panipat. Photo by

6. The Sixth Invasion (1762)

On his return journey after the battle of Panipat, the army of Ahmad Shah was greatly harassed by the Sikhs. Who constantly attacked, killed, and looted the Afghans, laden with enormous booty. From this point onward the Mughals were totally out of Punjab and now the contest to control Punjab was between the Sikhs and the Afghans only. 

By this time the Sikhs were the most dominant power in Punjab and as soon as Abdali was out of Punjab, the Afghans started losing control over vast areas. The Sikhs became so bold and powerful that they defeated and killed Khwaja Obaid the governor of Lahore and occupied the city in early 1962.

Ahmad Shah was understandably incensed and marched to chastise Sikhs. They evacuated most of the territory and gathered at Kup a village 22 miles south of Ludhiana. They were roughly about 50,000 in number. They were surprised by Abdali on 5th February 1762 and lost thousands of men in a long-running battle. After chastising the Sikhs, Abdali returned to Lahore. But on his way to Lahore, he destroyed the most sacred gurdwara of the Sikhs at Amritsar, known as Darbar Sahib. 

Abdali remained in Punjab until December 1762 in Lahore. But failed to restore order and peace in Punjab and control the guerilla activities of the Sikhs and their loot and plunder.

Battle of Kup, Memorial. 

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7. The Seventh Invasion (1764-65)

After the departure of Abdali after the previous campaign, the field was open for the Sikhs. They spread their reign of terror and plunder to the whole of Punjab, even beyond. In the east, they crossed Jamuna and caused great disturbance in Rohilkhand. In the west, even the mighty Rohtas Fort fell to them and in the south they plundered Multan. Besides looting towns and cities they destroyed and desecrated mosques and forbade Muslims to perform their religious obligations. Afghan faujdars either fled in the face of the Sikhs or were killed and complete anarchy prevailed in Punjab at this time.

Abdali could not ignore this challenge to his authority and prestige for long. He entered Punjab in the winter of 1764-65 to crush the Sikh jathas. However, despite his best efforts and many inconclusive engagements, he could not break the power and resistance of the elusive Sikhs. However, once again he satisfied himself by destroying the gurdwara at Amritsar. ٖAfter staying in Lahore for some time, Abdali marched toward Ambala with the intention to go to Delhi. During this journey, he vent his fury on the local population and thoroughly plundered the whole region on both sides of Beas and Jalandhar Doab. However, after teaching Jamuna River he changed his mind and returned to Punjab. Again some fierce clashes erupted between the two sides on a daily basis during his passage through Jalandhar Doab, but no decisive battle was fought. Abdali had realized by this time that any further stay in Punjab was futile and returned to Afghanistan, without wasting any time. This seventh campaign of Abdali proved to be a total failure and he did not achieve any of his aims. He left Punjab in April 1765.

Rohtas Fort. 16.01.2022. (Photo by the writer)

8. The Eighth Invasion (1766-67)

Ahmad Shah Abdali had left Punjab in April 1765, and only a month later the Sikhs expelled his Viceroy from Lahore and struck their own coin. Abdali was not yet ready to give up such a valuable province of his empire as Punjab. He returned the next year and crossed Indus at Attock in December 1766. Sikhs tried to oppose him twice on both sides of the river Jhelum but failed. Abdali entered Lahore on 22nd December 1765, unopposed, and soon Amritsar too fell to his general. The Sikh sardars dispersed to different parts of Punjab. Now the great chases began. The Sikh bands resorted to their favourite tactics of guerilla warfare, i.e. hit and run, attacking baggage trains, and harassment. Many skirmishes and running battles were fought but no decisive action took place. By now, Abdali was fully realizing that he cannot subdue the Sikhs. He tried to reach to a settlement with them but received no positive response. Even during his presence Sikhs were active throughout Punjab and even entered Doab of Ganga Jamuna and attacked the territories of Abdali's allies. 

Abdali marched as far as Ismailabad, 20 miles south of Ambala. He did not go any further and for some time encamped at Machhiwara, near Sutlej. He sent several expeditions against the Sikhs but without any success. However, one of his generals Jahan Khan was able to inflict a crushing defeat on the bands of the Sikhs busy in their depredations in Gangetic Doab, near Shamli. Abdali did not stay for long in Punjab and returned to Afghanistan. This expedition proved to be a total failure. 

9. The Ninth Invasion (1768-69)

This expedition was very short and without any significance. He entered Punjab in December 1768. He came as far as the Chenab, while the advance guard arrived at Eminabad. But on this occasion, his fortuned were at their lowest ebb. His health was failing, and his prestige waning. Internal disturbances in Afghanistan were also adding to his worried. So due to many factors, he was compelled to return in January 1769.

An old Lodhi era mosque at Eminabad. 23.07.2019. (Photo by the writer)

10. The Tenth Invasion (1769-70)

This last expedition of Abdali to achieve wealth and glory and divert the attention of his troublesome people to foreign adventures proved to be the most miserable. This time he could not move beyond Peshawar and after staying there for a short time, returned to Kandahar.     

Thus ended an epoch in the history of Punjab, that left deep imprints on the history and minds of the people of Punjab. The Sikhs were most directly effected but at the same time were the greatest beneficiaries. It is interesting to note that Abdali first came to India in 1739, when he accompanied his mentor Nadir Shah. It is also noteworthy, that these invasions did not end with the death of Abdali in 1772 and continued almost to the end of the eighteenth century by his predecessors. That would be the topic of my next article.

Tomb of Ahmad Shah Abdali, Kandahar. (Photo by: Wikipedia)

I would appreciate your suggestions for improving this post or pointing out any mistakes. 

Tariq Amir
July 17, 2023.